Interview Preparation – What you need to know before the interview

Interview Preparation – What you Need to Know Before a Job Interview

Interview Preparation What you Need to Know Before the Interview

I can’t emphasize enough how important interview preparation is, and the benefit you can get out of it if done properly. Please prepare in advance. The better prepared you are, the less anxious you will be, and the greater your chances for success.

  • Find someone to role play the interview with you. This person should be someone with whom you feel comfortable and with whom you can discuss your weaknesses freely. This person should be objective and knowledgeable, perhaps a business associate.
  • Use a mirror or video camera when you role play to see what kind of image you project. This helps you see yourself in the eyes of the interviewer.
  • Assess your interviewing skills. What are your strengths and weaknesses? Work on correcting your weaknesses, such as speaking rapidly, talking too loudly or softly, and nervous habits such as quivering hands or inappropriate facial expressions.
  • Learn the questions that are commonly asked and prepare answers to them. Practice giving brief but thorough answers.
  • Decide what questions you would like to ask, and practice politely interjecting them at different points in the interview.
  • Evaluate your skills, abilities, and education as they relate to the type of job you are seeking, and see where you need to focus more effort on your strengths.
  • Practice tailoring your answers to show how you meet the company’s needs, and why you are a better candidate then the others that are in the running.
  • Assess your overall appearance. Find out what clothing is appropriate for your industry. Although some industries such as fashion and advertising are more stylish, acceptable attire for most industries is conservative dress.
  • Have several sets of appropriate clothing available since you might have several interviews over a few days. Always keep it professional.
  • Your clothes should be clean and pressed, and your shoes polished as well.
  • Make sure your hair is neat, your nails clean, and that you are generally well groomed.
  • Research the company. The more you know about the company and the job you are applying for, the better you will do in the interview. Get as much information as you can before the interview.
  • Have extra copies of your resume available to take to the interview. The interviewer may ask you for extra copies.

Extra emphasis should be made on Interview Preparation. Make sure you bring along the same version of your resume that you originally sent to the contact at the company. You can also refer to your resume to complete applications that ask for job history information (e.g., dates of employment, names of former employers and their telephone numbers, job responsibilities, and accomplishments).


4 Steps to Getting Hired

4 Steps to Getting Hired

4 Steps to Getting Hired

Start by Creating a Winning Cover Letter

The success factors for scoring your dream job are broken down into four elements:

  1. Winning resume and cover letter
  2. The follow-up phone call
  3. The interview
  4. The thank you letter

Hardly any job search experts focus on writing solid cover letters, focusing instead on resumes. It’s true that a resume can certainly make an impact, but if the reader has to go through dozens of resumes, he or she will see a lot of similar experiences, skills and accomplishments on your competitors’ resumes. So what sets you apart from the rest? A good cover letter.

Be sure your cover letter is custom-tailored to the position at hand, your accomplishments, objectives and skills, and give a strong case as to why you believe you are a great fit for this position. Do your homework on the company, and be prepared to mention how you will be able to help them achieve their goals, issues and concerns.

You can get some of this information from their corporate Web site and typing industry keywords into online search engines. You might get lucky and find out some common concerns, issues, and problems in your potential employers’ industry. The more research you do, the better you will be able to state these items in your cover letter. Some attention-getting items include education, accomplishments, career highlights, and company terminology that apply to the prospective company.

4 Steps to Getting Hired

Following Up With a Phone Call

Call the prospective employer after you send out your resume. The phone should be just as effective a tool for you as it is for companies that use it for interviewing. Remember to keep a record of all the positions you applied for, who you talked to, and what the next step in that process is. These notes should be reiterated in your follow-up cover letter correspondence. It will show your initiative and commitment to your job search.

Always answer your phone in a polite and courteous manner. Never answer your phone while eating, or while dogs or children are making noise in the background. Likewise, your answering machine or voicemail is a direct reflection of you. Keep your greeting short and to the point in order to project a professional image when a prospective employer calls you.

A greeting with loud music or a lot of people talking at the same time is not going to score you any points with the caller. If someone else is answering your phone, instruct them to give only specific information that you want to share with the caller. They should know you are job hunting and need them to act in a professional manner as well.


You’ve made it through the first two steps in the job search process. Congratulations! But don’t get too excited, you still have a long way to go.  

Here’s a to-do list to help you ace the interview:

  1. Unless you have a closet full of suits, jackets, shirts, and skirts (for women) or ties (for men), you need to go shopping. First impressions will go a long way.
  2. Make sure your shoes are clean and polished. Same goes for women’s shoes.
  3. Your clothes must be pressed or dry cleaned if necessary. Clothes that appear wrinkled, dirty, or smelly will have a negative effect on the interviewer.
  4. Make sure you are well groomed. Pay particular attention to your hair and face.
  5. Do not use any perfume or cologne. You never know if the interviewer is allergic to certain scents. Deodorant is necessary.

Now that you have the grooming part down, you need a strategy for what you will say and how you will say it.

A good start is a firm handshake, and then you might start off with small talk.

Example: I have heard great things about your company, I understand that ABC Company has 46% market share of widgets being made in North America.

Another Example: I read the article you wrote in healthcare weekly magazine about ways to minimize emergency room wait times and personal care to patients at your hospital. It was very enlightening.

If you plan on small talk, choose a topic suited to the prospective employer’s industry to show the interviewer that you keep up with industry trends and news. All it takes is a visit to the Web to learn about the company and the interviewer. Remember, always maintain eye contact.     

In your face-to-face interview, don’t come off too cocky or overconfident by giving an impression that you’re too good for the job or that the interviewer should feel privileged that you came in to interview with them. This sends a negative message to the interview.

During the interview, pay close attention and have your list of researched questions ready to ask at the appropriate time. Just remember that as you are being interviewed, you are also interviewing the company to make sure it will be a good fit for you.

Writing a Thank you Letter

Once the interview is over, the next step in the process is to write a thank-you letter. Choose your words wisely. Be sure to mention a few key interests, your experience, and the value you will bring to the company. Finish the letter by thanking the interviewer for his or her time, and express interest in the company and position. Write and send the thank-you letter as soon as you get home from the first interview. 

A hand-written letter shows a personalized touch. If you don’t have good handwriting, a typed letter will do. You can mail or hand-deliver your thank-you letter to the interviewer’s office to his/her assistant. It is also becoming increasingly acceptable to send the letter via e-mail.

If the interviewer’s hiring decision came down to you and another candidate with identical backgrounds and experience, and you were the one that sent a thank-you letter, I would bet money you would get the job.

You are your own advertising billboard, so go out there and advertise your skills and abilities.


7 Resume Writing Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

7 Resume Writing Mistakes and How to Avoid Them

7 Resume Writing Mistakes and How to Avoid Them
Here are seven mistakes that ruin most resumes, and what you can do to prevent them:

Mistake #1: No Objective or Summary

Start your job search off on the right foot by describing the job or field in which you want to work. Otherwise, you force the employer to read your entire resume before figuring out which position best suits you. This creates unnecessary work for your reader.

If you already know the exact type of job or title you’re applying for, mention it! You can start the resume something like this:


Detail oriented Engineering Manager with 10 years of design experience seeking to bring value and expertise to an organization.

What if you don’t know the job title? You can start your resume like this:


Engineering Manager with 10 years of design and manufacturing experience who knows how to add value to operations.

By starting your resume with a clear objective or a focused summary, you tell the reader exactly what you want to do for him or her. This establishes a rapport and sets the stage for the resume, which will greatly improve your results.

Mistake #2: Focusing on Your Needs

This is the biggest mistake you can make. Your resume must quickly answer the one question on every employer’s mind: “What does this applicant bring to the table?”

Unfortunately, most resumes don’t even come close to addressing this question, instead including statements such as, “Experienced Marketing Manager seeking a position where I can utilize my skills in an environment with potential for career advancement.” While a statement like this might accurately describe your motives for applying, it makes your potential employer less interested in your resume.

Employers hate to hire new people. The only reason they need to hire someone is when they have a problem and need to solve it. Typically, they are very busy and can’t spend a lot of time in the hiring process.

Writing about yourself and not including what the employer wants. Your resume should be a marketing tool addressing the needs of the potential employer reading the resume. The employer looking at this resume should be saying, “This person has exactly what I’m looking for” as they read your resume.

The success of your resume depends on making it clear to the employer how you can contribute to the efficiency of the organization. Notice this opening summary again:


Engineering Manager with 10 years of design and manufacturing experience who knows how to add value to operations.

It’s enticing for a manager to hear upfront that you can add value to the organization’s operations. You can also say you will contribute to the efficiency of the organization or make the company more profitable, if in fact the job description calls for it and you’re capable of reaching these goals. The fastest way to advance your personal goals is to help your employer achieve his or her goals.

Mistake #3: Focusing on Responsibilities Instead of Results

Stress what you’ve accomplished and how invaluable you are to your current employer, instead of telling the reader what responsibilities you’ve held at each prior job.

Make a list of your daily duties and activities at your current or previous job, and brainstorm how fulfilling those responsibilities made a positive impact on the organization. Focus specifically on results… the more the better – because this is what the employer will want to see.

Mistake #4: Using Too Many Big Words

I have seen this way too many times. Applicants use terminology, jargon, or fancy words that really don’t have any value for the employer. The message you want to convey in your resume should be clear, concise, and to the point.

Simple is best. Use this mantra followed by national newspaper journalists: Write at a fifth-grade reading level. For example, try “organized” instead of “administered”.

Mistake #5: Spelling and Punctuation Errors

I cannot overemphasize the importance of using your word processor’s spell-check. Submitting resumes with grammatical errors, spelling errors, typos or poor formatting will not help you. A potential employer will look at the resume and think that an applicant who represents himself or herself poorly on paper will not represent the organization well in person.

Almost every hiring manager I talk to says they consistently see resumes with spelling or punctuation errors. In addition to using spell-check, read through the entire resume at least twice. Focus on making sure dates, titles, and numbers are correct.

Show your resume to a few friends and have them read it out loud so you can hear what it sounds like. Tweak the parts that don’t read well.

Mistake # 6: Too Much Detail

Providing too many details about older jobs that don’t apply to the job you’re seeking. Including a 7 page resume with too much detail about the progression or regression of your career will give the manager a high level idea of where your career is heading. Any employer who feels your career is on the decline will consider other candidates.

Mistake # 7: Formatting

Formatting your resume in a confusing manner. A potential employer will spend about 15 seconds doing a quick scan of your resume. Using an easy-to-read format allows him or her to spend more time reading your resume in detail. The common resume formats are reverse chronological, functional (skill based), and a combination format (or what’s referred to now as hybrid). 

For other job related statistics and relevant data, you can visit the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics website at  


When and How to Use a Resume Summary or Objective

When and How to Use a Resume Summary or Objective

When and How to Use a Resume Summary or Objective

A resume has two sections: An Objective, and a Summary. Here are some tips to help you determine what’s best for you.

1.) Use the first section, the “objective”, to make clear your abilities, qualities, and career achievements. Write in powerful, but honest, advertising-style language that makes the reader raise their eyebrows with anticipation and realize that you are someone special.

2.) The second section, called the “summary”, is where you back up what you put into the first section with evidence that you actually did what you say you did. This is where you list and describe the jobs you have held, your responsibilities, your accomplishments and your education.

The Objective Section


Most resumes make the mistake of skipping the assertions and going straight to the evidence. The real “meat and potatoes” are in the assertions section. But don’t give away too much. The best thing to do this is to leave the reader wanting more.


A commonly used term in the sales profession for getting them interested without giving away way too much information is “Selling the Sizzle, not the Steak.” Leave them with a bit of mystery, so they want to inquire about you to see if you are a good fit for the position.


You start by naming your intended job. This may be in a separate objective section, or it may be folded into the summary. If you are making a change to a new field, or you’re young and not fully established in a career, start with a separate objective section.


Your resume should convey why you are the perfect candidate for a specific job, just as good advertising is directed toward a very specific target audience. Your resume should read as if you are absolutely clear about your career direction, even if you aren’t.


The first step is to establish a clear path for your future, if you haven’t already. It will be easier to meet and fulfill your goals if you have a clear target. Even if you are not exactly sure what you’re looking for, you cannot let your uncertainty show. A vague or broad objective will look like you don’t have a positive or confident career path.   

Example: Suppose the owner of a French fine-dining restaurant is looking for a gourmet cook, so he puts an ad in a local newspaper seeking an experienced cook with French fine cuisine experience. About a week later, he gets 100 resumes for this position from applicants who have experience with a variety of culinary ethnic dishes. The employer has no way of knowing whether any of them are really interested and qualified in French cuisine.

Your objective section can make your resume stand out from the crowd in the eyes of a busy potential employer. The employer is interested in hiring you for what you can do for them, not for learning as you go. So, you must keep in mind that your message has to tell the employer that you have something of value to offer that other candidates don’t have, or that you can do better. Remember, you are writing advertising copy, not your life story.



“OBJECTIVE” – Talented gourmet French cook seeking a position with a well-respected fine dining establishment to prepare appetizers, main course and pastry dishes.

An on-target objective statement like this will spark their interest. In this example, this sentence conveys very important and powerful messages: “I am interested, and want the job you are offering. I am the candidate you are looking for.”

Here’s how to write your objective. The first thing you should do is decide on a specific job title for your objective. Ask yourself how to best demonstrate that you are the perfect candidate. Think specifically about two or three qualities, abilities, or achievements that would make a candidate stand out as truly exceptional for that specific job.

Be sure you get to the point with the objective. But remember that an objective may be broad and somewhat undefined in some cases, such as “a mid-level management position in the medical industry.”

Here’s an example of a more general format:

OBJECTIVE: A management/entry level/mid-level position in an organization where “x” skills and “y” skills would be appreciated (or, in an organization seeking “x” skills and “y” skills.)

If you are applying for several different positions, you should customize your objective statement for each one. You may even want to change the majority of your resume for each job you apply for. There is nothing wrong with having several different resumes, each with a different objective, each specifically crafted for a different type of position.

Here’s another view on using an objective on your resume.

It is sometimes appropriate to include your objective in your summary section. Instead of this, create a separate objective section. The point of including an objective statement is to illicit a specific response from the reader.

If you are making a career change or have a limited work history, you want the employer to immediately focus on where you are going, rather than where you have been. If you are looking for another job in your present field, it is more important to stress your qualities, achievements and abilities first.

A few examples of separate objective sections:

  • Vice president of sales and marketing in an organization where a strong track record of expanding market share and advancing software technology is needed.
  • Senior staff position with a bank that offers the opportunity to use my expertise in commercial real estate lending and strategic management.
  • An entry-level position in the hospitality industry where a background in advertising and public relations would be needed.
  • A position in teaching mathematics where the ability to demonstrate easy to follow examples and exercises are needed.

The Summary Section


The summary consists of several statements that focus the reader’s attention on the most important qualities, achievements, and abilities you have to offer. Those qualities should be the most compelling demonstrations of why they should hire you instead of another candidate.


It gives you a brief opportunity to convey a few of your most stellar qualities. Here’s another perspective from another source on why a summary is better.


Gear every word in the summary to your targeted goal. First identify the qualities the employer will care about most. Then look at that list and identify why you are the perfect candidate to fill the need.


Pick out the stuff that best demonstrates why they should hire you and assemble it into your summary section. Your summary should showcase abilities instead of experience.

Here’s an effective outline for your summary:

  • A short phrase describing your profession/occupation
  • A statement of broad or specialized expertise
  • Two or three additional statements related to the following,
  • Breadth or depth of skills
  • Unique mix of skills relevant to industry or occupation
  • Range of work environments in which you have experience
  • A special or well-documented accomplishment
  • A history of awards, promotions, or exceptional performance commendations, and
  • One or more professional or career-related personal characteristics

A few examples of summary sections:


  • High energy, creative, and versatile real estate executive with nine years of experience in property acquisition, development, and construction, as well as the management of large apartment complexes. Especially skilled at building effective, productive working relationships with clients and staff. Excellent management, negotiation, and public relations skills.


  • Over 12 years’ experience as an interior decorating consultant working in a high-profile role with retirement communities to design living spaces that cater to seniors and surrounding community events. Motivated self-starter with excellent analytical, organizational, and creative skills.


  • Marketing management executive with nearly 12 years of experience in advertising, copywriting, media placement and selection, policy writing, and strategic market development. Innovative approach to creating marketing campaigns for corporate initiatives. Skilled negotiator with strong management, sales and marketing background.


  • Health care professional experienced in management and program development. Expertise in emergency medical services. A talent for analyzing problems, developing procedures and finding innovative solutions. Skilled in working with different cultures, and within a foreign environment with limited resources.

The Skills and Accomplishments Section

In this final and important section of your resume, you should go into more detail about your experience. You are still writing to sell yourself to the reader. Basically, do exactly what you did in the summary section, but go into more detail.

In the summary, your focus was on the most special highlights. Now you tell the rest of the story. Let them know the results you produced, what happened as a result of your efforts, and at what skills you are especially experienced.

Remember to write as if you were advertising a product. Tell the reader what benefits they will get from buying the product: you. Don’t include details unless they serve this goal.

Sometimes the skills and accomplishments section is a separate section. In a chronological resume, it becomes the first few phrases of the descriptions of the various jobs you have held. When it is a separate section, it can have several possible titles, depending on your situation:

  • Summary of Skills and Accomplishments
  • Recent Accomplishments
  • Areas of Expertise and Experience
  • Professional Career Highlights

There are a variety of ways to structure the skills and accomplishments section. Put your skills and accomplishments in order of importance for your career goals, regardless of which style you use. If you have many skills, the last skill paragraph may be titled “Additional Skills.”

For other job related statistics and relevant data, you can visit the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics website at